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5 diets, the effectiveness of which is confirmed by scientists

Lifehacker has studied dozens of serious scientific research and put together diets that will definitely help you lose weight. You only need to choose the diet that does not make you suffer, and make it a part of your life.

1. Atkins Diet
most effective diets: Atkins Diet
livfriis / ru.depositphotos.com
This popular low-carb diet was developed in 1960 by cardiologist Robert C. Atkins. The diet includes several phases and is aimed at changing eating habits to healthier ones.

What is the essence of diet
The Atkins diet does not include calorie counting or portion control. The only thing to consider is grams of pure carbohydrates minus fiber.

The diet is divided into four phases:

The first phase is the most severe, it lasts at least two weeks and allows you to lose 3-4 kg. At this time, you reduce the amount of carbohydrates to 20 g per day, and 12-15 g of them are obtained from vegetables. You consume a lot of protein from poultry, meat, fish and seafood, eggs, cheese, while completely eliminating fruits, sweet pastries, pasta, cereals, nuts. It is necessary to give up alcohol and drink eight glasses of water per day.
You continue to consume 12-15 g of carbohydrates from vegetables and avoid sugar, but gradually return some foods rich in healthy substances: nuts, seeds, berries. You lose weight and move on to the next phase only when about 4.5 kg is left before your goal.
You gradually introduce previously banned foods into the menu: fruits, starchy vegetables, whole grains. You can add 10 g of carbohydrates. But if you begin to gain weight again, you need to return to normal at 20 g. In this phase, you remain until you reach your ideal weight.
Any foods are allowed, but you continue to adhere to the principles of diet. If you begin to gain weight, return to the previous phase.
What science says
In 2007, Stanford University investigated the Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial the effectiveness of four popular diets: Atkins, Ornis , Zones, and LEARN (Low Fat Diet). After 12 months, those on the Atkins diet lost 4.7 kg, on the LEARN diet – 2.6 kg, on the Ornish diet – 2.2 kg, and on the Zona diet – 1.6 kg.

In general, many studies confirm the benefits and effectiveness of low-carb diets. For example, a recent scientific review of six studies showed the Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity that diets with a low glycemic index or low glycemic load allow you to burn an average kilogram more than others, positively affect body weight, fat and cholesterol.

Another study showed the Diet with High or Low Protein Content and Glycemic Index for Weight-Loss Maintenance that high-protein diets with a low glycemic index help maintain weight.

Possible harm
Atkins Diet: What’s behind the claims? The Mayo Clinic website warns that a diet with a sharp reduction in carbohydrate may have the following side effects:

Headache.
Dizziness.
Weakness.
Constipation
Atkins diet is not recommended for people with kidney disease, women during pregnancy and lactation, as well as people with high physical activity.

2. Paleo diet
most effective diets: paleo diet
Denis Brien / Flickr.com
In 2013, paleo-diet became one of the most popular in the world, although there is still no consensus among nutritionists whether this diet is useful or not.

What is the essence of diet
The paleo diet is based on products that our distant ancestors ate even before the advent of agriculture.

Supporters of the diet claim that, despite the thousands of years that have passed since that time, the human body still copes best with the food of hunters and gatherers.

The menu includes meat, fish, eggs, vegetables and fruits, nuts (except peanuts) and seeds. Ideally, the meat should be from animals grown in natural conditions, without the use of special feeds. Game is also good.

The diet completely excludes sugar, starchy vegetables, dairy and grain products, oils (except for cold-pressed olive, walnut and avocado oils), legumes, tea, coffee, carbonated and alcoholic drinks, fruit juices.

What science says
In 2007, scientists compared the A Palaeolithic diet improves glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischaemic heart disease effect of paleo- and Mediterranean diets without calorie restriction.

After 12 weeks, people on the paleo diet lost an average of 5 kg (on the Mediterranean – 3.8 kg) and lost 5.6 cm at the waist (in the other group – 2.9 cm). On average, people from the paleogroup consumed 451 kcal less per day than in the control group, and without any restrictions. In addition, their blood sugar levels returned to normal.

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